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Public Employment and Compensation Reform During Times of Fiscal Consolidation

by Lorenzo Forni & Natalija Novta

This paper compiles and compares recent and past measures introduced to contain the public wage bill in a number of emerging and advanced economies to assess their effectiveness in bringing down expenditure...


Designing a Fiscal Framework for a Prospective Commodity Producer: Options for Lebanon

by Mariusz Jarmuzek & Diego Mesa Puyo

Lebanon is expected to have gas resources in its Mediterranean basin, and these could turn the country into a natural gas producer over the next decade. Lebanon's economy and institutions will thus need to adapt...


Financial Frictions and Sources of Business Cycle

by Marzie Taheri Sanjani

This paper estimates a New Keynesian DSGE model with an explicit financial intermediary sector. Having measures of financial stress, such as the spread between lending and borrowing, enables the model to capture...


Unconventional Monetary Policy and Long-Term Interest Rates

by Tao Wu

This paper examines the transmission mechanism through which unconventional monetary policy affects long-term interest rates. I construct a real-time measure summarizing market projections of the magnitude and...


Unraveling the Monetary Policy Transmission Mechanism in Sri Lanka

by Manuk Ghazanchyan

In this paper we examine the channels through which innovations to policy variables- policy rates or monetary aggregates-affect such macroeconomic variables as output and inflation in Sri Lanka. The effectiveness...


Singapore : 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Press Release; and Statement by the Executive Director for Singapore

by International Monetary Fund. Asia Dept

KEY ISSUES Outlook and risks. Following an upturn in 2013, growth is expected to moderate somewhat during 2014-2015, narrowing the positive output gap. The impact of recovering demand in advanced economies is...


Regulating Capital Flows at Both Ends: Does it Work?

by Atish R. Ghosh & Mahvash Saeed Qureshi

This paper examines whether cross-border capital flows can be regulated by imposing capital account restrictions (CARs) in both source and recipient countries, as was originally advocated by John Maynard Keynes...


Determinants of Financial Market Spillovers: The Role of Portfolio Diversification, Trade, Home Bias, and Concentration

by Yoko Shinagawa

This paper defines financial market spillovers as the comovement between two countries? financial markets and analyzes financial market spillovers over the period 2001-12 through four channels: bilateral portfolio...


The Making of a Continental Financial System : Lessons for Europe from Early American History

by Vitor Gaspar

Alexander Hamilton was the first U.S. Treasury Secretary from 1789 to 1795. When he started, the Federal Government was in default. During his tenure, U.S. Treasuries became the ultimate safe asset. He successfully...


This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate

by Naomi Klein

The most important book yet from the author of the international bestseller The Shock Doctrine, a brilliant explanation of why the climate crisis challenges us to abandon the core “free market” ideology...


Measuring Vulnerability in Developing Countries: New Analytical Approaches

by Wim Naudé, Amelia U. Santos-Paulino & Mark McGillivray

In all of the major challenges facing the world currently, whether it be climate change, terrorism and conflict, or urbanization and demographic change, no progress is possible without the alleviation of poverty....


The Invisible Soldiers: How America Outsourced Our Security

by Ann Hagedorn

The urgent truth about the privatization of America’s national security that exposes where this industry came from, how it operates, where it's heading—and why we should be concerned.

Thirty years ago there...


Myanmar : 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Press Release; and Statement by the Executive Director for Myanmar

by International Monetary Fund. Asia Dept

KEY ISSUES Context: The authorities continue to make progress on their far-reaching political and economic reform program. Key economic reform priorities are being realized. However, macroeconomic and financial...


Portugal : Fiscal Transparency Evaluation

by International Monetary Fund. Fisc Dept.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Portugal�s practices meet most of the principles of the revised Fiscal Transparency Code at good or advanced levels. A number of areas still present practices at a basic level, but in...


Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) Selected Issues

by International Monetary Fund. Afri Dept.

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after...


Kenya : 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Press Release; and Statement by the Executive Director for Kenya

by International Monetary Fund. Afri Dept.

KEY ISSUES Context: Kenya has embarked on major reforms in line with the 2010 constitution. The new government has started the process of devolution at a fast pace, introducing a reporting framework that allows...


Liberia: Ad Hoc Review Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement and Request for Augmentation of Access and Modification of Performance Criteria-

by International Monetary Fund. Afri Dept.

KEY ISSUES Background. With the highest number of new and cumulative Ebola cases recorded to date, Liberia is the country most affected by the epidemic in West Africa. In addition to exacting a heavy human toll,...


Guinea : Requests for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility and for Modification of Performance Criteria Under the Extended Credit Facility Arr

by International Monetary Fund. Afri Dept.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Guinea is suffering from an outbreak of Ebola, which has become a humanitarian crisis with a significant economic impact. Preliminary estimates suggest a negative impact on 2014 growth, which...


Sierra Leone : Ad Hoc Review Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement and Request for Augmentation of Access and Modification of Performance Cri

by International Monetary Fund. Afri Dept.

KEY ISSUES Background. The Ebola outbreak that started in one district in late May has spread to the entire country, overwhelming already weak institutions and ill-equipped medical facilities. At end-August,...


Food Prices and the Multiplier Effect of Trade Policy :

by Paolo Giordani & Nadia Rocha

This paper studies the relationship between trade policy and food prices. We show that, when individuals are loss averse, governments may use trade policy to shield the domestic economy from large food price...