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The Sortino Framework for Constructing Portfolios: Focusing on Desired Target Return™ to Optimize Upside Potential Relative to Downside Risk

by Frank A. Sortino

The most common way of constructing portfolios is to use traditional asset allocation strategies, which match the client's risk appetite to a weighted allocation strategy of fixed income, equities, and other...


Greece: Fifth Review Under the Extended Arrangement Under the Extended Fund Facility, and Request for Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion

by International Monetary Fund. Euro Dept.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Extended Arrangement. On March 15, 2012, the Executive Board approved a four-year arrangement in the amount of SDR 23.79 billion (2,159 percent of quota; €28 billion). Purchases totaling...


Bhutan: Selected Issues

by International Monetary Fund. Asia Dept

SUMMARY The first chapter describes the current tax system and suggests options for tax policy reform in Bhutan. Though significant hydropower revenues are expected in the medium term as major projects come...


Republic of Madagascar:Request for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility; Staff Report; Press Release; and Statement by the Executive Director

by International Monetary Fund. Afri Dept.

This paper focuses on Madagascar’s Request for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility (RCF). The Malagasy authorities managed to avert a macroeconomic crisis during a difficult period of political transition...


Botswana: Technical Assistance Report-Introducing a Medium-Term Expenditure Framework

by International Monetary Fund. Fisc Dept.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Government of Botswana has committed to introduce a Medium-Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) by 2016. The MTEF will provide a more explicit linkage between National Development Plan (NDP)...


Russian Federation: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Informational Annex; Press Release

by International Monetary Fund. Euro Dept.

KEY ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS Context. The growth slowdown continued in 2013, reflecting pre-existing structural reasons, despite accommodative policies. The fallout from geopolitical tensions relating to Ukraine...


Jordan: 2014 Article IV Consultation, Third and Fourth Reviews Under the Stand-By Arrangement, Request for Waivers of Nonobservance of Performance Cri

by International Monetary Fund. Midd Dept.

Jordan is grappling with strong headwinds. It is facing a political transition even while the Syria crisis is stretching Jordan’s social fabrics. At the same time, gas inflows from Egypt continue to fluctuate,...


Ukraine: 2013 Article IV Consultation and First Post-Program Monitoring-Staff Report; Press Release; and Statement by the Executive Director for Ukrai

by International Monetary Fund. Euro Dept.

KEY ISSUES Context: Weak external demand and inconsistent macroeconomic policies have contributed to a prolonged economic recession. A combination of an effectively pegged exchange rate, loose fiscal policy,...


Brunei Darussalam: Statistical Appendix

by International Monetary Fund. Asia Dept

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after...


Modeling Appropriate Fiscal Targets and Optimal Consolidation Paths for Resource-Rich Countries: The Case of Suriname

by Daniel Kanda & Mario Mansilla

This paper first attempts to quantify the natural resource wealth of Suriname from the perspective of its impact on the fiscal position, and then assesses the fiscal sustainability gap in that context. It then...


Mali: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper-Progress Report

by International Monetary Fund. Afri Dept.

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after...


Labor Tax Cuts and Employment:A General Equilibrium Approach for France

by Raphael A. Espinoza & Esther Pérez Ruiz

The paper presents a simple supply side, general equilibrium model to estimate the macroeconomic effects of labor tax cuts. The model assumes that output is produced using capital, unskilled and skilled workers,...


Senegal: Seventh Review Under the Policy Support Instrument and Request for Modification of Assessment Criteria-Staff Report; and Press Release

by International Monetary Fund. Afri Dept.

KEY ISSUES Context. GDP growth was lower than expected in 2013 (an estimated 3.5 percent) but would increase to 4.9 percent in 2014 with a rebound in agriculture, mining, and industry. Inflation stood at 0.7...


Côte d'Ivoire: Fifth Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility and Requests for Modification of Performance Criteria

by International Monetary Fund. Afri Dept.

KEY ISSUES Background: Progress toward political reconciliation and restoring social cohesion continues. But the road remains long and bumpy. Growth performance was impressive in 2013, and is projected to remain...


The EU Services Directive: Gains from Further Liberalization

by Emilio Fernández Corugedo & Esther Pérez Ruiz

The EU Services Directive was adopted in 2006 to foster competition in services across Europe. However, progress in liberalizing services has fallen short of expectations due to the article 15 of the Directive,...


Rwanda: First Review Under the Policy Support Instrument-Staff Report; and Press Release

by International Monetary Fund. Afri Dept.

KEY ISSUES Main challenges: Rwanda continues to face the challenge of sustaining high growth while reducing its reliance on aid and preventing the build-up of imbalances. After using foreign exchange reserves...


Seychelles:Request for An Arrangement Under the Extended Fund Facility-Staff Report; Press Release; and Statement by the Executive Director for Seyche

by International Monetary Fund. Afri Dept.

This paper discusses Seychelles’ Request for an Arrangement Under the Extended Fund Facility (EFF). In the five years following the 2008 balance of payments and debt crisis, the authorities have successfully...


Pakistan:Third Review Under the Extended Arrangement and Request for Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion, and Request for Modification of

by International Monetary Fund. Midd Dept.

This Paper discusses Pakistan’s Third Review Under the Extended Arrangement and Request for Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion (PC).The economy is showing signs of improvement. The FY2013/14...


New Zealand: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Press Release

by International Monetary Fund. Asia Dept

KEY ISSUES Outlook and risks The economic expansion is becoming increasingly embedded and broad-based, driven by supportive financial conditions, historically high commodity prices, resurgent construction activity...


Republic of Poland: Selected Issues

by International Monetary Fund. Euro Dept.

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after...